How do you make a red wine ?
1. Desteming and crushing
Once the harvest is done, the grapes are destemmed, i. e. the stalk is separated from the stalk, which can give the wine a herbaceous taste. You already know what treading is !
2. Alcoholic fermentation and maceration
Maceration is the moment when the juice is in contact with the solid parts of the grape. During this maceration, the must will ferment. With the action of yeasts already present or added, fermentation transforms sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The latter moves upwards in the tank, taking the film, seeds and pulp with him. They then form what is called the marc cap, which contains the tannins, aromas and pigments of the future wine. During fermentation, which lasts between four and ten days, the winegrower regularly mixes the solid part with the liquid part.
It is the collection of fermented juice (called free-run wine). The solid parts are also pressed to obtain the pressed wine, which is denser and richer in tannins. The latter can be reintegrated into the free-run wine to improve its balance.
4. Malolactic fermentation
This second fermentation reduces the acidity of the wine by transforming malic acid into lactic acid, using not yeasts but bacteria. This step gives the wine its suppleness, its roundness, and gives it harmony.
5. Livestock farming
Sometimes assemblies are made at this stage. That is to say, we mix several wines made from different grapes. Then, the wine is stored in barrels or vats for several years during which it will evolve differently depending on its container. It often happens that we see on a bottle: "matured in oak barrels", which means that it has been matured in an oak barrel. Wood brings its own components to the wine, and as it is a breathable material, it oxygenates it.
Source : VeganWinesocial